The energy industry is the largest single industry in the world and ‘electricity’ is the most usable form of energy for mankind. It is in this quest that alternate/renewable/eco-friendly inventions/modes of generating usable electricity are being researched/invented.

This invention factors  the such needs of electricity by mankind in the current era and most so is a step forward to the fossil fuel era of energy.

 

1 ) The invention is the fabrication of a self-contained Plant/Unit , to generate electricity , having a Working Fluid ( also Sr.No. 7  , Photograph No.1 ( i ) , 1 ( ii ) Legend Sr.No.1 ( i )  )  within it ,  and whereas the Working Fluid , be it any , is not expended/consumed/burnt , to any extent/quantity at all, while generating electricity .

 

2 ) The invention runs on the Temperature difference , between the ambient/solar/thermal  temperature-heating of the Heating Assembly ( higher Temperature ) ( Diagrams No’s 1 and  Photograph No’s  2 ( i ) , 2 ( ii ) , 2 ( iii )  ) , and the evaporation of water temperature-cooling of the Cooling Assembly ( lower Temperature ) ( Diagrams No. 2 and Photograph No’s 3 ( i ) , 3 ( ii ) , 3 ( iii ) ) .

 

3 ) The Chart/Table  showing the difference between the Ambient/Solar/Thermal Temperature and  lower Temperature ( cooling ) attained by evaporation of water , factoring in the ambient temperature and humidity , is herewith attached as per Chart/Table No . 1 .

4 ) Further - no fuel is used/consumed/expended in generating/producing electricity, for the running of the invention .

 

5 ) Preferably - the Working Fluid is to have a low Boiling Point , in the Temperature range of 10 Degrees Celsius to 40 Degrees Celsius .

 

6 )  Also preferably the Working Fluid should have a low “Latent Heat of Vapourization” value .

 

7 ) The Working Fluid used in this Invention is Diethyl ether with the formula (C2H5)2O , which has a Boiling Point of 34.6 Degrees Celsius and a Freezing Point of  –116.3 Degrees Celsius . The Latent Heat of Vapourization value of  Diethyl ether is 89.80 Calories/Gram at 30 Degrees Celsius

( Legend Sr.No. 1 ( i ) )  . The Diethyl ether used in this invention is of 99 percent purity – Laboratory Grade manufactured by MERCK Specialities Pvt. Ltd. ( Photograph No. 1 ( i ) , 1 ( ii )  )  .

 

8 ) Further any Working Fluid may be used , which has a low Boiling Point , in the range of 10 Degrees Celsius to 40 Degrees Celsius , as also preferably it should have a low Latent Heat of Vapourization value. The Working Fluid should not react/have-any-reaction with the material used in the invention . List of Liquids/Gases which may also be used as Working Fluid in this invention is provided in Legend Sr. No. 1 ( ii )  .

 

9 ) The Plant has at the lower/base end, a suitably designed Heating Assembly(Diagrams No.1 and  Photograph No’s  2 ( i ) , 2 ( ii ) , 2 ( iii ) ) to warm/heat the Working Fluid , by either direct solar rays or the ambient/thermal temperature of the atmosphere ( i.e. by conduction and convection ) . The Heating Assembly fabricated in this invention , is made of pure metal Copper pipes ( 99.9 percent purity ) ( Photograph No. 4 )  as per detailed dimensions in the accompanying Diagrams . The reason why metal Copper tubing is used , as opposed to metal Copper sheets , is so as to contain the pressure/s generated by/for the working of the invention , as also because metal Copper has a high thermal conductivity of 401  W/(m K)

A chart depicting metals with high thermal conductivity along with the thermal conductivity value of these metals is herewith attached as Chart/Table Sr. No. 2 .

 

10 ) The Heating Assembly is/was kept at ground/base/lower level and this Heating Assembly holds the Diethyl ether in Liquid form , to be re-heated by ambient/solar/thermal heat , by the processes

of conduction and convection. ( Sr. No. 9  also ) .

 

11 ) Further - above the lower/base level Heating Assembly - are placed three ( 3 ) more heating units namely - Vapour Heater No’s 6 ,7 & 8 , ( Diagrams No’s 3 , and  Photograph No’s 5 ( i )  , 6   ) , which further heat the vapours of the Working Fluid – being vapours of liquid Diethyl ether itself . Pertinently , and since Diethyl ether has a low Boiling Point of 34.6 Degrees Celsius ( Sr.No.7 , also Legend Sr.No.1 ( i ) ) , the vapours ( and thus pressure ) of the Working Fluid are available for the successful running of the invention .

 

12 ) Now - between the Heating Assembly and Cooling Assembly , we have a Temperature difference ( with the Temperature of the Heating Assembly being higher than that of the Cooling    Assembly ) ( and thus there is also a pressure difference ) ,  just at the entry point of the Cooling Assembly , is placed a self-designed Vapour/Gas Turbine ( Diagrams No.’s  5 ( i ) , 5 ( ii ) , 5 ( iii ) and  Photograph No’s  7 ( i ) , 7 ( ii ) , 7 ( iii ) , 7 ( iv ) , 7 ( v ) , 7 ( vi ) , 7 ( vii ) , 7 ( viii ) , 7 ( ix )  ) .  The vapours of the Working Fluid are then made to flow into the inlet ( Diagram No. 5 ( iii ) , Photograph 7 ( ix ) ) of the Gas/Vapour Turbine , designed to work at low pressures , in the range of approximately 4 psi ( pounds per square inch ) to 30 psi . The design of the Gas/Vapour Turbine used is as per

Diagram No’s 5 ( i ) , 5 ( ii ) , 5 ( iii ) and  Photograph No’s  7 ( i ) , 7 ( ii ) , 7 ( iii ) , 7 ( iv ) , 7 ( v ) , 7 ( vi ) , 7 ( vii ) , 7 ( viii ) and  7 ( ix )   .  

 

Therefore and since - the pressure in the Cooling Assembly is lower , and the pressure in the Heating Assembly higher, the pressurised vapours of the Working Fluid ( Diethyl ether ) are drawn in - by the Cooling Assembly , and in the process are drawn through the jets/nozels  ( Diagrams No’s 5 ( iii ) and 

 Photograph No’s 7 ( v ) ) of the Gas/Vapour Turbine , and as a result the blades of the Turbine ( Diagrams No’s 5 ( i ) and Photograph No’s 7 ( i ) , 7 ( iv ) , 7 ( vi ) ) move/rotate and the dynamo/generator is given energy - and electricity is generated .

( The vapours of the Working Fluid hit against the Copper Fins of the Gas Turbine and the force so applied , causes rotary movement of the impeller/rotor of the Turbine . This further provides force to the Generator/Dynamo which produces electricity , which is then in usable form ) .

 

13) Further - the vapours of the Working Fluid after their flow through the nozels/jets of the Vapour/Gas Turbine , condense into liquid form at the base of the Turbine Unit/Box ( Diagram No. 7 , Photograph No. 7 ( vii ) , 7 ( viii) , 7 ( ix )  ) , and the liquid Diethyl ether is then drawn into the Cooling Assembly/Units in liquid form ( i.e. the vapours of Diethyl ether condense into liquid state ) , and by gravity-flow , the liquid  ( Working Fluid ) collects at the base of the Cooling Assembly/Units , and is re-fed into the base of the Heating Assembly/Units by means of a connecting tube leading from the base of the Cooling Assembly  ( Diagram No.2 at Point ‘A’ , Photograph No.3 ( ii ) at Point ‘B’ ) , to the base of the Heating Assembly ( Diagram No.1  at Point ‘A’  , Photograph 2 ( iii ) at Point ‘B’ ).

 

14 ) Finally and since - the Cooling Assembly is kept/functioned at a height above the Heating Assembly ( at a difference of 18 Feet ) , the cooled Working Fluid , now in liquid form ,  flows down to the base of the Heating Assembly , via the connecting tubes/pipes , from the base of the Cooling Assembly  ( Diagram No.2 at Point ‘A’ , Photograph No.3 ( ii ) at Point ‘B’ ) , to the base of the Heating Assembly (Diagram No.1  at Point ‘A’  , Photograph 2 ( iii ) at Point ‘B’ ) , by gravity-flow , for its re-heating and re-vapourisation . Thus the system ( invention ) while generating electricity is most essentially/importantly self-contained , being a closed unit/plant , and - no fuel is used/expended/consumed .

 

15 ) However , the Pressure created by the Vapours of the Working Fluid in the Heating Assembly , apart from feeding/supplying Vapours to the Vapour/Gas Turbine , also apply Pressure on the Working Fluid in the Heating Assembly , and the level of the Working Fluid therefore rises in the tube/pipe connecting the base of the Heating Assembly to the base of the Cooling Assembly ( also Sr. No. 14 ) , and as a result of which the Cooling Assembly is kept above the Heating Assembly , i.e. at a height of 18 Feet ( in this invention ) .

The Chart/Table depicting the height of column of Diethyl ether required in the tube/pipe connecting the lowest point of the Heating Assembly to the lowest point of the Cooling Assembly , to sustain varying degrees of pressure ( in the Heating Assembly )  is as per Chart/Table No. 3 .

 

16 ) Further - the higher the ambient/solar/thermal temperature-heating of the Diethyl ether ( in the Heating Assembly ) the higher will be the pressure generated by the vapours of Diethyl ether ( in the Heating Assembly ) . The Chart/Table showing the pressures obtained at various temperatures for Diethyl ether are as per Chart/Table No. 4 .   

 

17 ) The entire invention/unit is closed/sealed and the Plant internally contains only the Working Fluid and its vapour/s ,  i.e. all other gases and air are withdrawn from the plant (internally) before it is sealed . Essentially this invention works on the principle of relative Vacuum–Vapour difference being created by the Working Fluid Vapours ( the vapour pressure ) , as contrasted in the Heating and Cooling Assemblies . Hence the invention works efficiently when only the liquid Working Fluid and its vapours , are present internally , in the invention . Therefore all other gases , like Air , have to be extracted before sealing the invention and then operating it . 

 

 

The fabrication and working/running of the invention in narrative/descriptive form, with reference to the Diagrams ,  Photographs , Charts/Tables , Legend and Notes .

 

1 ) First of all the Copper Tubing (  Photograph No. 4  ) , O.D. 7.8 mm   I.D. 6.6 mm ,  for the Heating Assembly ( Diagrams No. 1 and  Photograph No’s  2 ( i ) ,

 2 ( ii ) , 2 ( iii )  ) , was straightened ,  as it is available as rolls/coiled in the market .   

 

2 ) There-after the Copper Tubing ,  was cut ( by use of pipe cutter) ,  into the required lengths for the five ( 5 ) Units of the Heating Assembly ( Diagrams No. 1 and Photograph No’s 2 ( i ) , 2 ( ii ) , 2 ( iii ) )

 

3 )  Next the top and the bottom Copper Pipes of the Heating Assembly Units , O.D. -  25 mm ,  I.D. -  22 mm  ( Diagram No. 1Photograph No.2 ( ii )  ) , were cut to the appropriate length , and holes were drilled at equal spacing  ( to hold the ends of the straightened tubing of size O.D. 7.8 mm   I.D. 6.6 mm ).

 

4 ) Next -  the Copper Tubing of the Heating Assembly being Heating Unit No’s 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and 5 

( Diagram No.1 , Photograph No. 2 ( i ) ) , was gas brazed, by using gas brazing equipment ( Photograph No. 10 , 11  , Legend No. 5 ) .

 

5 ) In this manner the five ( 5 )  heating units of the Heating Assembly , ( Diagram No. 1 Photograph No. 2 ( i ) ) , were prepared .

 

6 ) Each unit was then separately tested ( Heating Assembly Unit No’s 1 , 2 , 3  , 4 , and 5 )  so that there is no leakage and are thus externally sealed . The testing was carried out at a pressure of 240 psi  and the pressure was held/maintained for a time span of 14 days each.

 

7 ) Thereafter the five ( 5 ) Heating Units of the Heating Assembly  ( Heating Assembly Units 1 , 2 , 3  , 4 , and 5 ) , were inter-connected to each other both at the top and at the bottom to constitute/form one functional unit  ( Diagram No. 1Photograph No. 2 ( i ) , 2 ( ii )  ) .

 

8 ) This one functional Unit of the Heating Assembly ( Heating Assembly Unit No’s 1 , 2 , 3  , 4  and 5 ) was then again pressure tested similarly at 240 psi  for 14 days . 

 

9 ) Next - the three Vapour Heater Units being Heating Units No. 6 , 7 and 8 ( Diagram No. 1 , 3 , 4  Photograph No.5 ( i ) , )  , were fabricated and tested separately for leakages at a pressure of  240 psi  over a period of 14 days .

 

10 ) Further these three Vapour Heaters , being Heating Units No’s 6 , 7 and 8 , were then inter-connected to each other ( Diagram No. 1 , 3 , 4 , Photograph No.5 ( i ) , 6 ) , sealed and pressure tested at  240 psi  over 14 days time .

 

11 )  Next the five base level Heating Units of the Heating Assembly ( Heating Assembly Unit No’s 1 , 2 , 3  , 4  and 5 ) were then inter-connected to the three ( 3 ) Vapour Heating Units ( No’s  6 , 7 & 8 ) by the use of copper tubing ( Diagram No. 6  ) .

 

12 ) Thereafter, the five base level Heating Units of the Heating Assembly , and the three Vapour Heating Units , being Heating Units No’s 6 , 7 and 8 , as now inter-connected , were tested at a pressure of 240 psi  held/maintained over a period of 7 days .

 

13 )  And in similar manner the 12 units of the composite Cooling Assembly ( Diagram No. 2 , Photograph No. 3 ) were fabricated , one at a time , and each unit separately tested at a pressure of               240 psi  held/maintained over a period of 14 days .

The total separate units of the Cooling Assembly are 12  -  being  6 small units and 6 big units .

( Diagram No. 2 Photograph No. 3 ( i ) ) .

 

14 ) The metal framework to hold the Cooling Units of the Cooling Assembly , was then designed/fabricated and setup against a wall , such that when the Cooling Assembly ( with is 12 individual Cooling Units ) was fixed onto the metal framework , the lowest point of the base of the Cooling Assembly  ( Diagram No. 2 ,   Photograph No. 3 ( i ) ) , was at a height of 18 Feet above the lowest point of the base of the Heating Assembly ( Diagram No. 1 , Photograph No’s 2 ( i ) , 2 ( ii ) ) .

 

15 ) The base points of all the sub-units of the Cooling Assembly were then all inter-connected and similarly the top points of the sub-units of the Cooling Assembly were inter-connected to each other , to form one composite Cooling Assembly ( Diagram No. 2 ,   Photograph No. 3 ( i ) )  .

 

16 ) The entire Cooling Assembly , now as one composite Unit , was then pressure tested at 240 psi  over 14 days .

 

17 ) The Cooling Assembly having being pressure tested as one composite unit , was then connected to the Heating Assembly by means of copper tubing ( Diagram No.6 )  . The base of the Cooling Assembly ( Diagram No.2  at  Point  ’A’ ,  Photograph No. 3 ( i ) at Point  ‘B’ )  was connected to the base of the Heating Assembly ( Diagram No.1  at Point  ‘A’ ,  Photograph No.2 ( iii ) at Point ‘B’ ) . And at the top the Cooling Assembly ( Diagram No. 2 at Point ‘B’  , Photograph No.3 ( i ) at Point ‘C’ )  was connected to the top of Heating Units 7 and 8 ( Diagram No.4 at Point ‘A’  ,  Photograph No. 6  at Point ‘A’ ) .

 

18 ) Having connected the Cooling Assembly to the Heating Assembly ( Diagram No. 6 )this entire fabrication was then pressure tested at 240 psi  over a period of 2 weeks ( 14 days ) .

 

19 )  Next - around the Copper Tubing of the Cooling Assembly was wound - water absorbent cloth . 

( Diagram No. 2 Photograph No. 3 ( i )  ) .

 

 20 )  Further , the Vapour/Gas Turbine was fabricated by the following procedure –

 

(i) First a wooden base was prepared ( Diagram No. 5 ( ii ) , Photograph No. 7 ( vi )  ) .

 

(ii) Next a Copper Tube of dimension O.D.12 mm ,  I.D. 11 mm was looped around the wooden base of the Turbine , at the appropriate place ( Diagram No.5 ( ii ) , Photograph No. 7 ( vi )  ) .

 

(iii) Next - 12 Number , Copper tubing branches , of dimension O.D. 6 mm I.D. 5.4 mm ,  were laid out on the sides/drawn-out/connected , to the looped around Copper Tube of dimension O.D. 12 mm  I.D. 11 mm  ( Diagram No.5 ( ii ) , Photograph No. 7 ( vi )  ) .

 

(iv) Having laid out the main looped Copper Tube and its 12 branches , this set-up was pressure tested at 240 psi  .

 

(v)  Next – the Dynamo/Generator , being part No. Minimotor SA ( Photograph No. 7 ( iii ) ,   Legend – Sr.No. 4 )  , was set up on a metal plate and centered to the wooden base .

 

(vi)  Next an Aluminium Impeller/Wheel was prepared ( Diagram No. 5 ( i )Photograph No. 7 ( i )  ) and onto the sides were affixed/riveted Copper sheet Fins as per dimensions and details in Diagram No. 5 ( i ) .

 

(vii) Further – a metal holder ( Photograph No. 7( ii ) ) was affixed onto the axle of the Dynamo/Generator ( Photograph No. 7 ( iii ) ) , and onto the metal holder was set-up the so prepared Aluminium Impeller/Wheel ( Photograph No. 7 ( iv ) ) .

 

(viii) This Aluminium wheel was then centered to the internal sides of the Vapour/Gas Turbine

( wooden  , Photograph No. 7 ( vi ) )  .

 

(ix)  Next - Copper capillary tubes were soldered onto the ends of the Copper tube branches ( 12 ) and on the ends of the Capillary tubes were soldered tubes ( Hypodermic needles ) - two jets of size I.D.  0.603 mm of Needle No. 20 and  two jets of size  I.D  0.413 mm of Needle No. 22  ( Legend Sr. No. 6 - Needle gauge comparison chart )  ( Diagram No. 5 ( iii ) , Photograph No. 7 ( v )  ) .

 

(x) Further various combinations of jets/nozels were tried out  ( Photograph 8  ) , to get the maximum efficiency , in the running of the Vapour/Gas Turbine .

 

(xi) The maximum efficiency was determined to be a combination of 2 jets/nozels of  I.D.  0.603 mm

( No. 20 Hypodermic Needle ) and 2 jets/ nozels of I.D.  0.413 mm  ( No. 22 Hypodermic Needle ) . 

 

(xii) Further the jets/nozels were then angled , to face the also angled Copper sheet fins of the Impeller/Wheel , and testing was done to achieve the highest force/pressure , in terms of rotary speed of the Impeller/Wheel and consequent Voltage generation ( tested with multi-meter ) .

Having tested the Vapour/Gas Turbine , and having made needed adjustments , the Vapour/Gas Turbine was then sealed in a container (  Diagram  No. 7 ,   Photograph No. 7 )  made of Copper sheets .

 

(xiii ) Before sealing the Vapour/Gas Turbine , the two wires ( + positive and - negative ) of the generator/dynamo were taken out of the Copper box( Diagram No 7 marked as ‘Inside pure Copper wire without insulation and without enamel’ ) ,  Photograph No. 7 ( viii ) at Point ‘A’   ) .

 

(xiv) The exit points of the two wires so drawn out were then sealed with hard epoxy resin  ( Diagram No. 7 ,   Photograph No. 7 ( viii )  at Point ‘A’   ) .

 

(xv ) Next the Vapour/Gas Turbine so fabricated and as so enclosed in a copper sheet box ,  was pressure tested at 30 psi  and the pressure held for three ( 3) days  .

 

21 )  After having fabricated the Vapour/Gas Turbine , it was affixed/kept on the holder , above the Cooling Assembly ( Diagram No. 6 , Photograph No. 3 ( iv )  ) .

 

22 ) Further , the Working Fluid ( Diethyl ether) Vapour  inlet ( coming on from the Vapour Heaters No. 7 and 8 ) was connected to the Turbine at point marked ‘‘ Connection to inlet of Turbine’’ in  Diagram No 2 ,  ( Photograph No. 3 ( vi ) at Point ‘B’ )  . These connection were then sealed with gas brazing .

 

23 ) Next , the exit point of the Vapour/Gas Turbine ( Diagram No. 6 , Photograph No. 3 ( iv ) at Point  ‘B’ ,  Photograph No. 7 ( viii ) at point marked ‘Working Fluid Outlet’ ) was connected to the Cooling Assembly at as depicted in Diagram No. 6 , Photograph No. 3 ( iv ) at Point  ‘B’

 

24 ) This entire set-up was then pressure tested at 30 p.s.i. over one week ( 7 days ) .

 

25 ) Further , the calculations were made for the volume of the Working Fluid , being Diethyl ether  , required to run the invention . This figure was worked out to be 28 litres of Working Fluid ( Diethyl ether ) .

 

26 ) This amount of the Working Fluid ( Diethyl ether ) was then fed into the Heating Assembly from entry points kept for servicing , marked as ‘Capillary Tubes closed for servicing’ on the top of Heating Unit No. 5  as depicted in Diagram No. 1 and Photograph No. 2 ( i )  marked as ‘Capillary Tubes closed for servicing’  .

 

27 ) Having filled the Heating Assembly with 28 litres of Diethyl ether , the filling points ( as in Sr. No. 26  above  )  were then sealed with Solder ( as Gas Brazing can no longer be used – with the working fluid Diethyl ether being highly inflammable ).

 

28 ) Further , from here onwards all sealing of either capillary/copper tubing was done by the exclusive use of Solder Iron and Solder Wire ( Photograph No. 13 ) ,  as Gas Brazing ( Photograph No. 11 ) can no longer be used – with the working fluid , Diethyl ether being highly inflammable .

 

29 )  Next – the servicing points at the top of the Cooling Assembly Units ( Diagram No. 2 - marked as ‘closed/blocked for servicing’ , Photograph No. 3 ( i ) marked as ‘closed/blocked for servicing’ ) were then opened for 8 hours to let out the vapours of the Working Fluid ,  Diethyl ether , and along with these vapours the trapped Air inside . The calculations of the liquid Diethyl ether ( working fluid ) required to run the invention successfully, included the amount of the Diethyl ether ( working fluid ) lost as vapours during the above process of letting out its vapours .

 

30 )  The invention was now ready to work successfully . The water absorbent cloth wrapped around the Copper tubing of the Cooling Assembly Units

( Diagram No. 2 Photograph No. 3 ( i )  ) , was then wetted with water and electricity was/is thus generated by the invention .

 

   

 

 List of Diagrams:

 

1.      Heating Assembly – Five ( 5 ) Heating Assembly Units and Vapour Heater No. 6 .

2.      Cooling Assembly – the Twelve ( 12 ) Cooling Assembly Units .

3.      Vapour Heater No. 6 .

4.      Vapour Heater No. 7 and 8 .

5.     (i)   Impeller/Wheel of Vapour/Gas Turbine .

      5. (ii)  Vapour/Gas Turbine – wooden structure and layout of Vapour/Gas feeder tubes/pipes .

5. (iii) Vapour/Gas Turbine – inclusive of Impeller/Wheel and Dynamo/Generator .

      6.  Entire Invention inter-connected . 

7.  Turbine/ Generator box made of Copper sheets .

 

      List of Photographs:

 

1       (i)   Working fluid – Diethyl ether .

Diethyl-Ether 99 percent purity – Laboratory Grade manufactured by MERCK Specialities Pvt. Ltd ..

 

1   (ii)   Working fluid – Diethyl ether .

       Diethyl ether 99 percent purity – Laboratory Grade manufactured by MERCK Specialities 

       Pvt. Ltd ..

 

2       (i)   Heating Assembly – 5 Heating Assembly units , No’s 1,2,3,4 & 5 , inter-connected to

        each other .

 

 2   (ii)  Heating Assembly - Assembly of 5 Heating units , inter-connected to each other , both

         at the top ( for Vapour flow) and at the bottom ( for Liquid Diethyl ether flow ) .

 

2   (iii) Heating Assembly – Heating Assembly Unit No.1 . The cooled/ condensed

 Diethyl ether  flows back from the Cooling Assembly via tube marked ‘A’ and re-enters the Heating  Assembly at point ‘B’ .

 

3       (i)   Cooling Assembly .

A view of the Cooling Assembly , the base of which is at a height of 18 Feet , above the base of the Heating Assembly . The Copper Tubing is covered with water absorbent cloth. Holder of the Vapour/Gas Turbine is seen at the Top of the Assembly at point ‘A’ . The entire Cooling Assembly is tilted towards the left at Point ‘B’ , for the Diethyl ether , in liquid form , to flow back to the base of the Heating Assembly .

 

       3   (ii) Cooling Assembly

            Close-up view of the Cooling Assembly . Testing Pressure Gauge is seen in the picture at

            Point ‘A’ . The flow-back tubes to carry the liquid Diethyl ether , from the base of the

            Cooling Assembly to the base of the Heating Assembly is seen at Point – ‘B’ .

 

       3   (iii) Cooling Assembly

Close-up view of the Cooling Assembly .

 

                3   (iv) View of Vapour/Gas Turbine showing the Vapour Inlet at Point ‘A’  and Working Fluid

outlet at Point ‘B’ .

 

4        Copper pipes / rolls – Copper Tubing , pure Copper 99.9 % , I.D.  6.6 mm  O.D  7.8 mm .

  Standard tubing used in fabricating the Heating Assembly and Cooling Assembly .

 

5        (i)  Vapour Heater  No. 6 .

       ‘First Vapour Heating Unit’ , - to further heat vapours of the Working Fluid. The whole piece

        is tilted towards the right side for any collected Working Fluid , in Liquid form , to flow back

        into the base unit Heating Assembly .

 

6       Vapour Heater No. 7 and No. 8 .

‘Second and Third Vapour Heating Units’  - to further heat vapours of the Working Fluid. The whole piece is tilted towards the right side for any collected Working Fluid , in Liquid form , to flow back into the base unit Heating Assembly .

 

7       (i) Aluminium Impeller/Wheel -  cut to design, Copper sheet fins attached onto the Aluminium Wheel , both at the top and at the bottom.

 

        7  (ii) Holder made of mild-steel, to co-join/attach the Generator/Dynamo to the

            Aluminium Impeller/Wheel .

 

       7  (iii) Dynamo/Generator being part no. FAULHABER MOTOREN MINIMOTOR SA

            2233F030PP-1162 Swiss Made, 22/2K 9,7.1 K401 0075 942789 . 

 

7   (iv) Aluminium Impeller/Wheel ( with attached Copper sheet fins ) with the

     Generator/Dynamo held  in the centre by the holder ( made of mild-steel ) .

 

7       (v)  4  Jets/Nozzles placed in the Gas/Vapour Turbine to let in the Vapours of Working Fluid to hit against the Copper sheet  fins of the Aluminium Impeller/Wheel ) .

 

7       (vi) Gas/Vapour Turbine with Aluminium Impeller/Wheel and Generator/Dynamo affixed in

 place.

 

7       (vii)  Turbine Box side view .

 

7    (viii) Turbine Box - view of Working Fluid outlet , positive and negative wires sealed with

 hard epoxy resin .

 

        7   ( ix ) Turbine Box with Vapour/Gas turbine placed inside . Vapour inlet marked at Point ‘A’ .

 

8     Combinations of jets/nozels for the working of the Vapour/Gas turbine . The Copper

 capillary tubes are tipped with cut pieces of chosen size Hypodermic needles .

 

9     Capillary Tubing used in the invention , of Godrej make . Product code – RMS97717391 . 

 

       10   Copper Brazing rods of composition - Silver 2% Copper 91% and Phosphorous

               In comman parlance known as 2 percent Silver brazing rods ( Legend Sr. No.5 ) . 

 

       11   Standard Gas brazing equipment used with gases Oxygen and LPG . Standard LPG

               Welding Torch and Brazing Gun , as used .

 

       12 (i)  High Pressure Compressor used for testing  purposes . Range 0 to 400 p.s.i. . Safety

              valve set at 350 psi .

       12 (ii)  Medium range Compressor used for testing  purposes . Range 0 to 220 p.s.i. . Safety

              valve set at 210 psi .

 

      13   Standard Solder Irons - range 90 Watts to 1000 Watts ,  and solder wire used .

 

      14  Standard Air Pressure Gauges used for testing purpose . Range 14 psi to 300 psi . 

 

      15 ( i )  Various aluminium Impeller/Wheels as tried out .

 

      15 ( ii ) Various Dynamo/Generator motors as tried out .

 

      16   Pressure Measurement Panel - Pressure Measurement Panel having 3 sensitive Pressure Gauge

             Meters, in the top row to measure the Vapour Heater Pressure coming in from Vapour Heater No 7

            & 8.  Bottom row also having 3 sensitive Pressure Gauge Meters to measure the pressure of the

            Cooling Assembly

 

      17  Electricity generation testing panel . Electric Panel having 2 Multimeters, 1 Ammeter & LED lights

             with individual switches for end use of electricity generated by the Vapour / Gas Turbine.

 

      

Chart / Table

 

1 ) Chart/Table  showing the difference between the ambient/solar/thermal temperature and  lower

     Temperature attained by evaporating water , factoring in the ambient temperature and humidity.

2 ) Chart / Table depicting metals with high thermal conductivity .

3 ) Chart / Table depicting pressure and height of column of Diethyl ether .

4 ) Chart / Table showing the pressures generated by vapours of Diethyl ether at various  

      temperatures .

 

  Legend

1 (i)  Properties of Diethyl Ether.

1 (ii)  Liquid / gases which can be used as Working Fluid in this invention.

2 )  O.D. - Outer Dimension .

3 )  I.D. – Inner Dimension .

4 ) FAULHABER MOTOREN MINIMOTOR SA 2233F030PP-1162 Swiss Made   , 22/2K 9,

     7.1 K401   0075  942789 .

5 ) Copper Brazing Rods – Composition - Silver 2% Copper 91% and Phosphorous 7% .

6 ) Needle gauge comparison chart .

 

Notes --

1.      Each individual unit of the Heating Assembly was fabricated and tested separately for leakages at a pressure of 240 psi over a span of 14 days each .

 

2.      Standard Air Pressure Gauges in the range of 0-300 psi were used for testing purposes as per sample/s in Photograph No.14  .

 

3.      Copper brazing was done by flame of oxygen and LPG as per sample in Photograph No.11.

 

      4 . The Generator/Dynamo being part no- FAULHABER MOTOREN MINIMOTOR SA

          2233F030PP - 1162 Swiss Made  , 22/2K 9,  7.1 K401   0075  942789 was purchased from

          Mayankits Components , Banglore as per their website-

          http://www.mayankits.com/index.php?id_product=22&controller=product .

 

5       . The Impeller/Wheel ,  Diagram No.5 ( i )   Photograph No.7 ( i ) , 7 ( iv )   of the air turbine was cut out from a 1.5mm Aluminium sheet .

 

6.       The fins were cut and designed from Copper sheet of  0.3  mm and was riveted onto          

           the Aluminium disk using Aluminium rivets ( for light weight ) of 2 mm ( Photograph 7 ( iv ) ) .

 

7.      The Copper capillary tubes used are of Godrej brand , Photograph No. 9 . Further the entire 

unit, which includes the Heating Assembly and Cooling Assembly were inter-connected and were  further tested for leakages as one whole unit ( before filling the plant with Diethy ether) , at a pressure of 240 psi and the said pressure was maintained for 2 weeks before passing the entire plant as leak proof .

 

8.      The entire air was extracted from the internal plant . 

           The procedure followed was-

           After making the calculations for the amount of Diethyl ether required for working of the plant

           a 20 % volume was added to this figure in litres. The entire unit was then filled with this

           amount of Diethyl ether and openings in the form of capillary tubes were kept open ( marked

           as  “ capillary tubes closed for servicing ’’ in the Diagrams. Thereafter the vapours of Diethyl-

           ether were allowed to escape from various such points at the top ends of individual units of

           the Cooling Assembly for a period of 8 hours.. In this  -  heated state while the vapours still

           generated a pressure within the entire unit - the ends of  capillary tubes were pressed

           together and sealed by use of solder. So infact the air within the entire plant was brought

           out along with the escaping vapours of the Working Fluid , i.e. Diethyl ether.

 

1.     Advantages and disadvantages
Describe here how the invention improves earlier solutions. Also, if you are aware of any advantages or disadvantages, please state them here.

 

Advantages:

 

(1)  No fuel is consumed / expended or brunt during the running of this invention .

(2)  The invention generates electricity while not causing any harm to the environment .

(3)   The Working Fluid and material required to fabricate/set-up the invention is easily available .

(4)  It can be set up as small “stand alone” basis .

(5)  The ‘stand alone’ plant would be in position to generate adequate electricity to cater to the needs

        of the end user .

(6)  The principles of science on which the invention is so based are established and basic norms/

        principles of science ( science of Thermodynamics ) .

(7)  Although this invention is in the initial stages/s , commercial option can be fabricated within

        the next five years .

 

Disadvantages:

(1)       Most importantly is to develop a commercially viable option .

(2)       Thermodynamic limitation of efficiency of this invention as classified as a ‘heat engine’ .

(3)  The invention per-se is meant to operate in the heat zones , most so , in hot and dry climate areas.

(4)  Acceptability factor by the main body scientific community is bound to take time, especially keeping

       in mind established procedures and norms of the energy industry. 

(5)  The Working Fluid used – Diethyl ether is a highly inflammable and expensive liquid and a

       non-inflammable and cheaper alternative is needed .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regards ,

 

 

 

Vikrant Suri